More than 100 years after the discovery of cosmic rays, their origin and acceleration mechanisms are a yet unresolved puzzle that neutrinos have the chance to solve. Being chargeless and weakly-interacting, neutrinos can travel long distances without being deflected by cosmic magnetic fields and can escape dense celestial environments, allowing for precise pointing to their production sites. Their detection will make it possible to unequivocally identify the sources of cosmic rays. While being the perfect cosmic messengers, neutrinos are extremely difficult to detect, requiring the construction of huge telescopes in unfriendly environments. The detection principle of high-energy neutrinos, the analysis method used to identify cosmic neutrino sources, and the latest results in the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy are discussed in this talk.